Bredekamp, H., Antikensehnsucht und Maschinenglauben: die Geschichte der Kunstkammer und die Zukunft der Kusntgeschichte, Berlin, 1993; French translation, 1996.

Brown, C., ‘Major and Minor Collections of Antiquities in Documents of the Later 16th Century,’ The Art Bulletin, vol. 56, no.3, September, 1984.

Daston, L. and K. Park (eds.), Wonders and the Order of Nature 1150-1750, New York, 1998.

Defaux, G., Le Curieux, le glorieux et la sgesse du monde dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle, Paris, 1982.

Findlen, P., ‘Cabinets, Collecting and Natural Philosophy,’ Rudolph II and Prague: The Court and the City, London, 1997.

Jardine, L., Worldly Goods, New York, 1996.

Schlosser, J., Die Kunst und Wunderkammern der Spatrenaissance, Leipzig, 1908.

Smith, P. and P. Findlen, Merchants and Marvels; Commerce, Science and Art in Early Modern Europe, Brighton, 2002.



Adams. S., ‘Household Accounts and disbursement books of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester 1558-1561,  Camden Society, 5th series, vol. 6, 1996.

Archer, J.E., E. Goldring and S. Knight, The progresses, pageants, and entertainments of Queen Elizabeth, Oxford and New York, c. 2007.

Attwood, P., Italian Medals c 1530-1600 in British Public Collections,  London, 2002.

Cust, L. , The Lumley Inventories, Walpole Society vol. 6, 1917-8.

Evans, M. (ed.), Art Collecting and Lineage in the Elizabethan Age: The Lumley Inventory and Pedigree, The Roxburghe Club, 2010.

Goldring, E., The Painted Glass of Pleasure: Sir Philip Sydney and the Visual Arts in Renaissance England¸ unknown.

Goldring, E., ‘An Important early picture collection: the Earl of Pembroke’s 1561 inventory and the provenance of Holbein’s ‘Christina of Denmark’,’ Burlington Magazine, vol. 144, 2002.

Goldring, E., Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and the world of Elizabethan art : painting and patronage at the court of Elizabeth I, New Haven and London, 2014.

Starkey, D (ed.), The Inventories of Henry VIII, London, 1999.

Yates, F., The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age, Oxford, 1979.



Adhemar, ‘Aretino, Artistic Advisor to François I’ Journal of the Warburg & Courtauld Institutes, vol. 17, 1954.

Bimbenet-Privat, M., Treasures of the French Renaissance, New York, 1998.

Bonnaffé, E., Inventaire des meubles de Catherine de Médicis en 1589, Paris, 1874.

Chatenet, M., La cour de France au XVIième Siècle, Paris, n.d.

Cox-Rearick, J., La Collection de François I, Paris, 1972; trans. into English, The collection of Francis I: Royal Treasures, Antwerp, 1995.

Crouzet, Denis, ADDI, Paris, 2005.

Eschenfelder, C., ‘Les Bains de Fontainebleau’, Revue de l’Art, n 99, 1993.

Knecht, R.J., Catherine de’ Medici, London, 1998.

Scallierez, C., François I et ses artistes, ouvrage collectif, R.M.N, 1992.

Simone, E., The French Renaissance: Medieval Traditions and Italian Influence in shaping the Renaissance in France, London, 1969.

Tauber, C., Manierismus als Herrschaftspraxis : die Kunst der Politik und die Kunstpolitik am Hof von Francois Ier, Berlin, 2009.

Wilson ‘Considerations sur le Trésor des Merveilles du Chevalier Père Dan,’ in Chastel, A. (ed.), Actes du Colloque International sur l’art de Fontainebleau, 1975.

Wilson-Chavalier, K., Patrons et mécènes en France à la Renaissance, St. Etienne, 2007.

Wolff, M (ed.) Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France,  Exh. Cat. Chicago Institute of Art, New Haven, 2011.

Zemon, N., The Gift in Sixteenth-century France, Oxford, 2000.


Germany and Hapsburg Collections

Chaunu, M. and E. Michèle, Charles V’, Paris, 2000.

Checa, F. (ed.), Carolus, exhib, catalogue, Toledo, 2001.

Delmarcel, G., ‘Los Honores: Flemish Tapestries for the Emperor Charles V’, Pandora, vol. 2, 2000.

Distelberger, R., The Kunsthistorishce Museum, Vienna: The Treasury and the Collection of Sculpture and Decorative Arts, London, 1982.

Eisler, W., ‘Chapter 1’, in The Impact of the Emperor Charles V upon the Visual Arts, Ann Arbor, Pennsylvania, 1983.

Evans, R.W., Rudolf II and His World: A Study in Intellectual History, Oxford, 1973.

Fucikova, E. (ed.), Rudolph II and Prague, Exhibition .Catalogue Prague 1997.

Gschwend, A. Jordan Hans Kevenhüller at the Court of Philip II of Spain: Diplomacy & Consumerism in a Global Empire, London, 2017.

Gschwend, A. Jordan, ‘For the Love of Dynasty: Habsburg Wives, Widows and Nuns,’ The Court Historian, vol. 21, no 1, 2016.

Hein, J., ‘Learning versus Status. Kunstkammer or Schatzkammer?’, Journal of the History of Collections, vol. 14, no. 2, 2002.

Kaufmann, T. da Costa, ‘Remarks on the collections of Rudolf II: The Kunstkammer as a form of representation,’ Art Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, Autumn, 1978.

Kauffmann, T. da Costa, The School of Prague-Painting at the Court of Rudolf II, Chicago, 1988.

Kauffmann, T. da Costa, ‘From Treasury to Museum: The Collections of the Austrian Hapsburgs,’ in Elsner and Cardinal, Cultures of Collecting, London, 1994.

Plon, E., Les maitres italiens au service de la maison d’Autriche, Paris, 1887.

Rudolph, K., ‘Exotica bei Karl V’, 175, Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen Museums Wien, 3, 2002.

Sandoval, F. de, Historia de la vida y hechos del Emperador Carlos V, Madrid: Seco Serrano, 1956.

Scheicher, E., Die Kunst und Wunderkammern der Hapsburger, 1979.

Trenk ,H. (ed.), Exotica: Portugals Entdeckungen im Spiegel fürstlicher Kunst- und Wunderkammern der Renaissance, Vienna, 2000.

Trevor-Roper, H., Princes and Artists: Patronage and Ideology at Four Hapsburg Courts, 1517-1633, London, 1976.

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum., Prag Um 1600, Kunst und Kultur am Hofe Rudolfs II, Vienna exh. Cat., Vienna, 1989.



Ames-Lewis, F., Mantegna and Fifteenth Century Court Culture, London, 1992.

Bertelli, S., ‘The Courtly Universe,’ in S. Bertelli., F.Cardini., & E.G. Zorzi (eds.), Italian Renaissance Courts, London, 1986.

Bolozoni, L., The Gallery of Memory, Toronto, 2005.

Cole, A., Art of the Italian Renaissance Courts, London, 1995.

Christianson, K., ‘The Studiolo of Isabella d’Este & Other late Themes,’ Mantegna, Royal Academy exhibition catalogue, London, 1992.

Cropper. E. (ed.), The Diplomacy of Art: Artistic Creations and Politics in Seicento Italy, Bolonga, 2000.

Findlen, P., Possessing Nature: Museums, Collecting and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy, California, 1996.

Franchini, D. (ed.), La Scienza a corte Collezionismo eclettico – natura e imagine en Mantua fra Riniscamiento a Manierismo, Bulzoni, 1979.

Goldthwaite, R., Wealth and the Demand for Art in Italy 1300-1600, Baltimore, 1993.

Guerzoni, G., ‘Liberalitas, Magnificentia, splendour: the Classic Origins of Italian Renaissance Lifestyles,’ Economic Engagements with Art, N. De Marchi and C.D.W. Goodwin (eds), 1998.

Hollingsworth, M., Patronage in Renaissance Italy: From 1400 to early 16th Century, London 1994.

Hollingsworth, M., Patronage in 16th-Century Italy, London, 1996.

Kempers, B., Painting, Power and Patronage: The Rise of the Professional Artist in Renaissance Italy, London, 1987.

Liebenwein Studiolo. Die Entstehung eines Raumtyps und seine Entwicklung bis um 1600, Frankfurt, 1977.

Lightbown, R., ‘Isabella d’ Este & her Studiolo,’ Mantegna, London, 1986.

Lindow, J., The Renaissance Palace in Florence, Magnificence and Splendour in 15th-century Italy, Oxford, 2007.

Martindale, A., ‘The Patronage of Isabella d’Este at Mantua,’ Apollo, LXXIX, 1964.

Mateer, D., Courts, Patrons and Poets, New Haven, 2000.

Nelson, J. and R. Zeckhauser, The Patron’s Payoff: Conspicuous Commissions in Italian Renaissance Art, Princeton, 2008.

O’Malley, M., The Business of Art, New Jersey, 2005.

Syson, L. and D. Thornton, Objects of Virtue, Los Angeles, 2001.

Thornton, D., The Scholars in his Study, New Haven, 1997.

Wackernagel, M., The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist: Projects and Patrons, Workshop and Art Market, transl. & ed. A. Luchs, Toronto, 1981.

Welch, E., Shopping in Renaissance Italy, New Haven, 2009.

Weil-Garris, K. and J. F. D’Amico, ‘The Renaissance Cardinal’s Ideal Palace: A chapter from Cortesi’s De Cardinalatu’ in Studies in Italian art and architecture, 15th through 18th centuries, H.A. Millon (ed.), Cambridge, Massachussets, 1980, vol. 1.

Weiss, Roberto, The Renaissance Discovery of Antiquity, New York, 1969.



Blockmans, W. and W. Prevenir, The Low Countries under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530, Philadelphia, 1999.

Blockman in M. North (ed.), Economic History and the Arts, Bohlau, 1996.

Burke, P., Antwerp, a Metropolis in Comparative Perspective, Antwerp, 1993.

Campbell, L., ‘The Art Market in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th century’, Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, 1976.

Campbell, L., ‘The Early Netherlandish Painters and their Workshops, in Hollanders-Favart & van Schoute (eds), Le dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture, III, Le Problème Maître Flémalle, 1997.

Eicheberg, D., Women of Distinction: Margaret of York and Margaret of Austria, Leuven, 2005.

Ewing, D., ‘Marketing Art in Antwerp, 1460-1560: Our Lady’s Pand,’ Art Bulletin, No 72, 1990.

Filipczak, Z., Picturing Art in Antwerp 1550-1700, Princeton 1987.

Holger.T., The Mediterranean World and Early Netherlandish Painting 1430-1530, London, 2002.

Honig, E., Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp, New Haven, 1998.

Jacobs. I.F., ‘The Marketing and Standardisation of South Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces; Limits on the role of the Patron,’ Art Bulletin vol.7, 1989.

Martens, P.J. & A. van den Brink (eds.), Extravagant! A Forgotten Chapter of Antwerp Painting 1500-30, Exhibition Catalogue, Antwerp, 2005-6.

Martens. P.J., (ed.), Bruges and the Renaissance¸ Bruges, 1998.

Monthias, M., ‘Socio-Economic Aspects of Netherlandish Art from the Fifteenth to the 17th century, A Survey’, Art Bulletin, 72, 1990.

Monfrin, J., ‘La connaissance de l’antiquité et le problème de l’humanisme en langue vulgaire dans la France du Xvieme siècle’, The late Middle Ages and the Dawn of Humanism outside Italy, Louvain, 1972.

Monfrin, J., L’Art à la cour de Bourgogne, Exhib. Cat. Musée des Beaux Arts de Dijon and Cleveland Museum of Art, Paris and Cleveland, 2004.

Ridderbos, B., and A. van Buren., Early Netherlandish Paintings: Rediscovery, Reception and Research, Los Angeles, 2005.

Van den Brink¸ P.B.R., ‘The Art of Copying: copying and serial production of paintings in the Low Countries in the 16th and 17th centuries, in van den Brink (ed.), Brueghel Enterprises, Exhib. Cat. Maastricht, Brussels, 2001.

Vermeylen, F., Painting for the Market: Commercialisation of Art in Antwerp’s Golden Age, Turnhout, 2003.

Wilson, J., Patronage and the Art Market in Bruges¸ Pennsylvania, 1993.


Spain and Portugal

Checa, F., Felipe II: Mecenas de las Artes, Madrid, 1992.

Gschwend, A. Jordan, The Story of Suleyman: Celebrity Elephants and Other Exotica in Renaissance Portugal, 2010.

Gschwend, A. Jordan, A rainha colecionadora: Catarina de Austria, Lisbon, 2012.

Moran, M. and Checa, F., El coleccionismo en Espan: de la camera de maravillas a la galleria de pintura, Madrid 1985.

Mulcahy, R., The Decoration of the Royal Basilica of El Escorial, Cambridge, 1999.

Mulcahy, R, Philip II of Spain, Patron of the Arts, Four Courts Press, 2004.

Rudolph, K., ‘Die Kunstbestrebungen Kaiser Maximilians II in Spannungsfeld zwischen Madrid und Wien’,  Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, vol.  91.

Sanchez Canton, A., Inventarios reales: bienes muebles que pertenecieron a Felipe II,  2 vols, Madrid, 1956-9.